compute the arithmetic mean of the characters (bytes) in a string
IndexOfCoincidence( s )
The IndexOfCoincidence(s) command returns the index of coincidence of a sample s of text. It can be defined by the formula add⁡fch⁢fch−1,ch=Ι⁡1..255n⁢n−1 where, for each character ch, fch is the frequency with which ch occurs in the input string.
The index of coincidence is returned as a floating point number, and the calculation is carried out at hardware precision.
In elementary cryptanalysis, the index of coincidence is often used in conjunction with the Kasiski test to attempt to determine the number of alphabets used in a polyalphabetic substitution cipher.
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